A rebuttal R acknowledges limitations of the argument and may be put forward to indicate conditions in which the warrant is not applicable and consequently the conclusion can be overturned. A rebuttal in the case of Mrs.
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Smith may be that she is currently on a medication that interacts with hydrochlorothiazide. A more efficacious medication may be suggested and thus act as a rebuttal. Perhaps Mrs. Smith's particular set of values, whatever they may be, prevent her from using the medication. With the introduction of qualifiers and the search for counterclaims and rebuttals, the Toulmin model can be used to analyze more complex Stage 3 and 4 arguments such as those commonly encountered in the practice of medicine.
Relation to Evidence Based Medicine. Currently there is much controversy among the proponents and critics of evidence-based medicine in regards to the role of external evidence, individual clinical expertise and data from the individual patient in the clinical decision making process. Harley Dickinson has illustrated the role of such information in the clinical context through the use of Toulmin model of argumentation. Dickinson argues that when introduced in argument information can either be " warrant-using " or " warrant-establishing ".
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Warrant-using information acts as the basis for a conclusion and attempts to answer "What information do you have to go on? In the clinical context, warrant-using information relates to the individual patient and is obtained through the patient interview, physical examination and investigative tests. In the case of Mrs. Smith, warrant-using information would include the measurement of her moderately elevated blood pressure on physical examination.
Warrant-establishing information serves as the backing or justification of the warrant used to make the leap from the data to the conclusion. Essentially, this form of information is used to answer "How did you get there? In relation to evidence-based medicine, warrant-establishing information is typically derived from systematic research such as randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis.
However, clinicians may often find themselves in situations where there is little, if any, research data available. In such situations clinicians may use clinical expertise as their warrant.
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Smith warrant-establishing information would include randomized controlled trials that demonstrate the effectiveness of hydrochlorothiazide in lowering blood pressure. Research evidence does not necessitate a clinician to make a particular decision. Evidence is not the absolute truth as it relates to the particular group of people participating in research studies. When we generalize from evidence obtained from a study to our patients we are simply improving our confidence in using a particular warrant.
Hierarchy of Evidence. Preference and greater weight is given to studies with less apparent bias such as randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis. Of the five levels of evidence, level I evidence is considered the freest of bias. Physicians should look to use the highest available evidence from the hierarchy. The Centre for Evidence Based Medicine provides a document discussing the hierarchy of evidence and grades of recommendation.
Carter, a year-old non-smoking woman, presents with acute bronchitis and requests antibiotic therapy. Her condition is most likely viral in etiology and you deny her request for antibiotic medication. You develop a treatment plan focussed on supportive measures. An explicit warrant is one that is stated; an implicit warrant is one that is unstated.
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You often see unstated warrants in commercials. If a commercial makes a claim that its product will improve your life in a certain way, it is assumed that you have bought into the underlying, unstated assumption that you want your life improved in that way. This is common in advertising, whether the product is a health or beauty product or another product. The product makes a claim and has data to back up that claim.
Organizing Your Argument
An explicit or stated warrant differs in that stating the warrant is critical to the argument. Commercials employ this method frequently, as well. Do you want X, Y and Z to happen? Or, do you want to prevent A, B and C from happening? It is critical to the argument to establish this, because the claim the product makes and the data that supports the claim rests on the assumption that the customer wants the end result that the product claims will happen. Identifying a warrant in an argument is not always easy. Often, warrants are not stated, but implied.
For example, if someone were to argue that based on specific data on the lifespan of a car that "Cars generally last a long time so switching to a hybrid car will make a positive impact on pollution" it may be hard to clearly draw a connection between the facts and the argument this person is making. But, that's ultimately the purpose of the warrant itself.
Actually, the rebuttal was presented in the previous section. As you see, the qualifiers and the rebuttal are tightly connected. Toulmin rebuttal is such an assertion which repudiates your thesis. Tweet This. This statement is needed to answer the counter-argument the rebuttal. As you can see from all these points, the structure of the Toulmin essay requires careful elaboration of the thesis and checking the conditions for its validity. Of course, this argument is only of ideal nature, so it is not possible to adhere to it in a perfect sense.
Its major weakness is, as we have seen, the impossibility to prove the warrants or our preliminary assumptions , for the reason that this would lead to endless regress such a vicious circle which is repeated without end. It is imperative to write your Toulmin essay in such a way that you state and defend your claim appropriately and thoroughly. Here is a Toulmin essay example that you can review before writing your own Toulmin model essay. Did you know that the Centers for Disease Control and the United States Department of Health and Human Services recommend that adults be physically active for at least 30 minutes each day?
Yes, you heard right. For exercise to be of any beneficial help, an adult must be physically active for at least 30 minutes every day. Some may argue that with the hustle and bustle of our current lives, this is not possible. I say, yes, it is. Thirty minutes of exercise is easy to get in every day and you should be happy to do it! Much research has gone into exercise and its benefits to health and wellness. Study after study has shown where exercise via aerobics, strength training and muscle conditioning has positive outcomes on health.
These studies have been so extensive that they have delved deep into the types of exercise and how much is needed for the various health benefits.
Qualifying the strength of an argument
Three common areas of studies are aerobic exercise, muscle strengthening and bone strengthening exercises. They all show that daily physical activity provides benefits such as weight loss or management, improvement in mood, cardiorespiratory and muscle fitness, and body composition as well as a reduction in risk for health conditions such as depression, heart disease, diabetes and more. There are thousands of studies that have shown time and time again, regardless of the population studied, the number of persons involved in the study and the types of exercises examined, that exercise does have a positive impact on overall health.
Exercising daily for at least 30 minutes positively impacts mood, weight and health. Take a look at your favourite athlete. How often do you think they exercise and what types of exercise do you think they do? What about their body composition? Look at your family or friends who exercise regularly, how is their weight, fitness level, body composition and overall health?