Peace Freedom is the Foundation of Peace.
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Without freedom, there is no peace. America, by nature, stands for freedom, and we must always remember, we benefit when it expands. So we must stand by those nations moving toward freedom. We must stand up to those nations who deny freedom and threaten our neighbors or our vital interests. We must assert emphatically that the future will belong to the free. Download this Research Paper in word format.
The French Revolution, Its Outcome, and Legacy
Read Full Research Paper. Sources Used in Document:. Cite This Research Paper:. Related Documents:. Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment. Foundation of Peace. Overall it is clear that new economic and social groups can play some role in shaping the success of revolutions but are not often decisive factors in doing so.
A stronger argument in governing the potential success of regime change is found by studying the strength of its outgoing institutions, and those which replace them. If we take a Weberian view of state power, as holding a monopoly on violence, as well as being able to successfully suppress and eliminate antistate actors, those with the greatest coercive power are least likely to succumb to revolution and later on, counterrevolution.
The longevity of the USSR can also perhaps be put down the ability of the regime to put down those who opposed it. This argument has received some criticism Theda Skocpol points out that France, Russia and China all had strong coercive mechanisms prior to revolution. This survives only weak historical probing all three of these revolutions involved a degree of mutiny from the national military, or were preoccupied in foreign wars.
It is important to note that while institutional strength can impact the potential success of a revolution it acts as a passive factor rather than a driver of revolution. Institutions shape the environment and potential barriers to revolution extant in a polity. Crises, be they economic, geopolitical or environmental, can have a major and sudden bearing on institutional strength, as well as shaping perceptions of the polity in which they happen.
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Numerous revolutions have happened in the wake of potentially state-shattering events, often in the international sphere. World War One had a major bearing on the Russian revolution, weakening the state financially and reducing its support amongst the populace as a result of conscri ption. The second World War similarly ravaged Chinese state apparatus enough that the revolution of was comparatively easy.
The French Revolution Was Plotted on a Tennis Court
When states have recently suffered large setbacks, and rebuilding is necessary, a new regime perhaps has an advantage, and thus states which began from such a place can build more enduring structures. Revolutions themselves can spark further revolutions, as the events of and the Arab Spring have shown, and thus are international crises in themselves.
China has hence seen mass protest after the fall of the USSR, and have since looked tentatively to events in the Middle East. Crises can thus feed into negative perceptions and lower the minimum criteria for revolutionary change by weakening institutions.
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Revolutions require a degree of popular support this means that the populace must know the reasons for revolutionary change and be sufficiently emotive to do something about it. In order for this to happen an intellectual transformation, as well as methods of disseminating this information fairly rapid, must be present. This perhaps tie into the earlier idea of exogenous modernisation. Here the distinction between revolution and leadership change is crucial the former requires ideological transformation.
These ideas allowed for a new ideological based for an incoming regime.
Phases of the French Revolution essays
What is crucial however is how these ideas were spread, and for a significant enough group within the populace to carry them forward to the new regime. Russia was undergoing significant urbanisation at the time of their respective revolutions, partly as a result of industrialisation the former also seeing a large uptake of students in the late 19th century.
In feudal societies ideas can less easily spread due to the limited movement of people between settlements in some areas of Europe passports were required to leave the town in which one lived. When peasant uprisings did occur, as in Britain in over a proposed poll tax, they could be more easily put down due to having a clear geographical base. With urbanisation and new ideas also came a greater press for spreading such ideas. Today, with the media more democratic than it has been at any point in history, this has proved pivotal in leadership and regime change.
Eva Bellin goes as far as to suggest that the rise of social media, as well as satellite TV, as why the Arab spring was only possible in the last decade.
The spread of ideas, and in many cases the novelty of them, are key in driving revolutions, and are necessary to understand a psychological interpretation of why revolutions succeed. Rational choice theories of why revolutions occur also posit reasons beyond that of changing attitudes as explaining when individuals decide to undertake revolutionary and counterrevolutionary action. This decision-making process is crucial in understanding the outcome of revolutions. Almost all revolutions have required the action of an individual or group to organise or initiate events.