Such discourses tend to abstract from both the politics and the historical context of problem definitions, in favour of idealized democratic models, supported by a small number of highly localized and dubiously generalizable examples. This is related to an almost complete lack of fundamental theoretical work on the concept of a problem. Is a problem something that requires the positing of practical solutions, or is a problem, primarily, something that defines a shared field of inquiry a problematic , the investigation of which may take radically unexpected turns, leading to a reproblematization — critical or otherwise — of the original issue?
The established literature on transdisciplinarity lacks an account of the internal dynamics of specifically transdisciplinary concepts — or concepts in their transdisciplinary functioning — beyond the idea that they address problems rather than disciplinary objects.
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And it has no developed concept of a problem. The project of which this issue is a part takes a different approach to transdisciplinarity, in several respects. First, it sets out from a different starting place: those theoretical developments in the anglophone humanities since the s that are based in the reception of the French and German theory of the s and after. These are theoretical forms, we propose, that are in one way or another transdisciplinary in character.
The great books of European theory in the second half of the 20th century all exhibit hitherto unexamined transdisciplinary conceptual dynamics. Nearly all of these texts either predate the established discourse on transdisciplinarity, with its myth of origin in Nice in , or were produced independently of it, although the questioning of disciplinarity was very much a part of their theoretical self-consciousnesses.
The disciplinarily specific dynamics of the radical theoretical generalities of these texts was thus obscured. National intellectual cultures, today, are post-national articulations of specific transnationalizing transdisciplinarities; hence the reactive ideological fervour of nationalisms, political and intellectual cf. Osborne and Alliez, : 8. These claims place the humanities at the forefront of Mode 2 knowledge production, despite their more or less complete absence from the literature, other than in this short and highly schematic overview itself. Yet it is precisely these developments that introduced radical forms of transdisciplinary conceptual functioning into the humanities.
Mill a rarely acknowledged lineage into German. In the intellectual culture of British empiricism, the distinction tended to be simply taken for granted, whether celebrated Matthew Arnold or bemoaned C. In this respect, it has always been a function of the social or human sciences in Britain and France to act as a problematizing go-between, between the humanities and modern concepts of science. Philosophy of the social sciences hardly exists as a sub-discipline of the philosophy of science, these days — an effect, perhaps, of its previous connections to the Marxist tradition.
Given the prioritization accorded to problem-definition in contexts of application within the model of Mode 2 knowledge production, one might have expected its approach to the humanities to have included more of an account of the way in which the life-world gives rise to humanities-specific problems, beyond those general questions of meaning and communication associated with the classical role of the humanities in the cultivation of the liberal self. To do that, however, would require stepping down from the standpoint of the state, conceived as the technocratic political representative of a national segment of humanity, to raise more political questions about different social subject positions, their competing socio-economic and cultural needs, and the forms of knowledge production associated with them — including the desire for freedom at a collective as well as an individual level.
So we believed at the time. Subsequent investigation has revealed this to be a partial truth, at best. There is no evidence of which I know that it was. Nonetheless, there is a clear conceptually transdisciplinary trajectory there, running from the La Bordean institutional analysis of the mids, via the Institut Polytechnique de Philosophie at the University of Paris 8 Vincennes — a philosophy department that was effectively constituted as a part of left politics — to that undoubtedly transdisciplinary text, Capitalism and Schizophrenia , , and beyond.
And it involved a quite different politics from the technocratic social democracy of the more recent, established conception: a post-Trotskyist, anti-authoritarian communist politics of groups, from the Left Opposition in France in the mids to the post-autonomia of the s. This leads to the second of the main differences from established discourses of transdisciplinarity of the approach adopted in this project: the centrality of the question of the relationship of transdisciplinarity to philosophy, and the philosophical critique of disciplinary philosophy, in particular.
At its best its place can only be taken by a summing up of the most general results, abstractions that arise from the observation of the historical development of men and women. Viewed apart from real history, these abstractions have in themselves no value whatsoever. They can only serve to facilitate the arrangement of historical material, to indicate the sequence of its separate strata. Marx and Engels, : 48, translation amended. Nor, one might add, can it live on in a purely negative form either, without being reduced to the mere shadow of a false self-sufficiency.
Rather, here it becomes the conceptual medium of transdisciplinarity, using the materials of the philosophical tradition as conceptual resources for transdisciplinary constructions. Transdisciplinary concepts acquire a philosophical appearance as the developing theoretical generality produced by their cross-disciplinary functioning approaches a total disciplinary universality; philosophical concepts acquire a transdisciplinary actuality to the extent that their empirical interpretation crosses a multiplicity of disciplines in a manner that reconstitutes them, as the relational product of these crossings.
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Established discourses of transdisciplinarity show little interest in questions of concept constitution, conceptual relations and conceptual critique. Rather, they displace relational issues onto questions about the organizational form of the research process. Yet the totalizing project — however open-ended, and especially in its historical form — carries with it philosophical presuppositions of its own, which have to be argumentatively redeemed, in relation to the ongoing transdisciplinary totalization of knowledges.
Structuralism appears there as a new and non-dialectical model of general scientificity. In the structuralist displacement of materialist and existential Hegelianisms, the same set of problems about disciplinarity appears in a new form. Such immanence means that concepts are retrospectively , artificially and temporarily grasped in their unity, qua concepts.
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This is a post-structuralist model of transdisciplinarity that did not emerge directly out of the critique of philosophy as such, but rather out of the critique of the re-transcendentalization of the concept of structure. In the particular case of Guattari, it appears as the immanently philosophical dimension of a social critique of the Lacanian psychoanalytical problematic. Here, it seems, these relations can be theorized without privileging the standpoint of the philosophy that has been left behind see Alliez, This is a great philosophical advantage.
An approach to transdisciplinarity from the standpoint of the theoretical transformations of the anglophone humanities by variants of French and German theory thus offers us two basic transdisciplinary problematics: dialectical and anti-dialectical. It is some of the conceptual resources of the structural, anti-dialectical, anti-humanist one that we present in Part 1 of this issue. We set out, surprisingly perhaps, from Michel Serres.
The early, broadly structuralist work of Michel Serres remains largely unknown in English. Here, Althusser is read back through the politics of the Sartrean concept of reading that he was writing against. As noted above, with Guattari we reach the point at which transdisciplinarity becomes explicitly thematized in French thought, in part as a working practice, and in part as a reaction against the institutionalization of interdisciplinarity.
Here, Andrew Goffey translates into English, for the first time, a late text in which the transdisciplinary problematic is both embraced and relocated within a generalized ontology of transversal relations. The question of what happens in French thought to the interrogation of disciplinarity through the critique of structuralism after Guattari is a moot point. Stella Sandford takes up the constitution of the transdisciplinary concept of gender in the context of the antagonistic relationship of the dominant disciplinary form of philosophy to feminist theory as such.
Disciplinary philosophy resists feminist theory, it is argued, because it cannot incorporate the necessarily transdisciplinary content of its concepts, which derive from its relationship to feminism as a political practice. Transdisciplinary problematics, then — multiple and diverse, but each programmatically translating the critique of disciplinary limitations into new traversal constructions, constructing new concepts through the transformation of problems.
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Foucault is both an inspiration to, and a red herring within, the literature on disciplinarity. He is an inspiration, first, because of the radical indeterminacy of the disciplinary character of his own writings. For others, his writings have been received as a general theoretical resource, available to each and every discipline in the humanities and social sciences see, for example, Goldstein, ; Ball, Complementing this image of exemplary interdisciplinarity is a sense of Foucault as being radically and explicitly anti-disciplinary in his academic politics, broadly derived from his construction of the concept of disciplinary power in Discipline and Punish — although a literal translation of Surveiller et punir would, of course, have moderated this reading, since it is the question of visibility which is largely at stake there, in the study of the prison as a disciplinary machine, rather than disciplinarity per se.
Nonetheless, discipline appears in this imaginary very much as the opposite of freedom. It is an almost exclusive emphasis on a negative sense of disciplinary power as a technique of domination that is the red herring in the debate about Foucault and academic disciplines. Indeed that danger is balanced there, rhetorically at least, by an oscillation with the alternative danger of a complete dissolution of disciplines into positivism.
This epistemologically negative view of disciplines is reinforced by the priority of discourses over disciplines in The Archaeology of Knowledge , and the exclusion there of disciplines from the set of relations between knowledge, science and formalization. In short, in The Archaeology of Knowledge , transdisciplinary savoir trumps disciplinary connaissance. To these questions I can reply in the negative.
Archaeology does not study disciplines. At most, such disciplines may, in their manifest deployment, serve as starting points for the description of positivities; but they do not fix its limits: they do not impose definitive divisions upon it; at the end of the analysis they do not reemerge in the same state in which they entered it; one cannot establish a bi-univocal relation between established disciplines and discursive formations.
Foucault,  : —9. He then proceeds to ignore disciplines altogether in his articulation of the history of the relations between knowledge, science and formalization, in epistemes, conceived as discursive organizations of the elements of positivities.
http://maisonducalvet.com/citas-online-fuente-de-pedro-naharro.php For there to be a discipline, there must be the possibility of formulating new propositions ad infinitum. Still further: in order to be part of a discipline, a proposition has to be able to be inscribed on a certain type of theoretical horizon. There is thus little textual ground for attributing to Foucault a one-sidedly anti-disciplinary stance with regard to academic disciplines, although he does undertake a quasi-structuralist epistemological critique of them, in the direction of a generically discursive transdisciplinarity that nonetheless still runs through them.
Inter-, multi- and trans-disciplinarity all depend upon the reproduction and development of the disciplines they stand between, multiply or cross. Jantsch , Lichnerowicz and Piaget all use the term in their papers there. Nothing further is heard of it thereafter. Meanwhile, the American research university is itself now increasingly being adopted, globally, as an institutional model. In the USA, the Cold War formation of Area Studies effectively functioned as the spatial — that is, geo-political — correlate to the temporal science of history, reduced in its turn to modernization theory.
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Translation is a type of travel, and it might be thought that, in so far as it is a book about travel between disciplines, Bal is a text about transdisciplinary concepts. Her example is narrative pp. The book traces movements of various concepts across disciplines, and is thus effectively about transdisciplinarity, in this regard; or at least, it contains materials for reflection on transdisciplinarity. But its piecemeal empirical approach to theory forgoes any theoretical reflection of that kind.
The transformation of the relationship between philosophy and the positive sciences. The dialectic of the internal and external generation of problems.
Hacking : Interestingly, Hacking also took Leibniz as his role model. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Theory Cult Soc.